Editor Roundtable: Bite Size Edition – Conventions and Obligatory Scenes

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Welcome to the Bite Size Edition of the Editor Roundtable Podcast. Here on the Roundtable we’re dedicated to helping you become a better writer, following the Story Grid method developed by Shawn Coyne. In these episodes we bring you some shorter solo articles and interviews on topics that interest us as writers. 

This is Kim Kessler, and today I’m bringing you a deep dive into Conventions & Obligatory Scenes with a talk I gave at Story Grid Live in Nashville in September 2019. 

So join me for a quick bite of writing insight, starting right now.

When people first hear about Conventions and Obligatory Scenes, they often react in one of two ways:

  • There’s the skeptic who says, “That’s buillshit. There’s no such thing as a magic list of ingredients to making a Story work.”
  • And the starry-eyed believer who says, “Yes, great! Now just give me the list!”

But neither of these statements are accurate. 

There are certainly observable patterns and principles for making a story work (just as there are in music, science, human behavior) which is what our work here at Story Grid is all about, but it’s never a paint by numbers, plug and play list. It’s about form, not formula. Something we’ll never stop saying. 

This is really important to understand, specifically when we’re talking about Conventions and Obligatory Scenes, because while Shawn has given us the answers with the genre cheat sheets, Conventions and Obligatory Scenes are not a checklist you can mark off so long as the items exist in your story. Nor can you simply insert them if they’re missing to fix it. Existing is not the same as working. While studying on the Roundtable and editing for clients, I have seen plenty of stories that can “tick the boxes” of Conventions and Obligatory Scenes, and yet they still aren’t satisfying. 

And think about yourself … in numerous places on the Story Grid website you can find “the list” of Conventions and Obligatory Scenes for your chosen content genre, but having the list isn’t the same as understanding it. How many people have the list but still don’t know what to do with it? That was me for a long time. 

When I first heard Shawn talking about Conventions and Obligatory Scenes I believed him, but I still didn’t really get it. Even when we did editor certification and were given the cheat sheets, they still weren’t fully meaningful to me, because I couldn’t see what they were doing, I didn’t understand WHY the elements needed to be in the story. They were just a list to be included, not anything meaningful that I understood how to use. 

And if you don’t understand how something works then you can’t expect to innovate on it and create something fresh. The best you can do is reproduce (in other words, write cliches). 

The truth is that Conventions and Obligatory Scenes are not a list. 

They are an explicit tool that serves a specific function, and that is to communicate your life values to your reader. They do this in two ways:

  • Conventions establish life values
  • Obligatory scenes turn the life values

But what does that even mean? And how do we use them? 

In order to understand how to use Conventions and Obligatory Scenes, you need more than the list…. you need to understand them in context to see how they function. There are three pillars you need to fully understand how Conventions and Obligatory Scenes work (and any other story principle for that matter):

1) The List (of known elements)

2) Story Theory (what a story is and what it does)

3) Masterwork of the genre (a badass of example of elements in action)

And my working hypothesis is that if you have two of these things, you can figure out the third …

  • Where do you think the List came from? Shawn figured it out from his many years as an editor in publishing. He used his knowledge of story theory and read a lot of books. After 25 years, he knows the List, because he observed in action within the masterworks. ST + MW = L
  • On the RT, we have L + MW = ST
  • As a writer, ST + L = MW

So let’s take a look at some story theory to understand what Conventions and Obligatory Scenes are actually doing for your reader. So what do we know about stories?

1. Stories are about change. 

  • This change is represented by life values, which are representing a universal human need. (Action stories are about Life and Death, which represent our universal physiological need for life sustaining food, water, shelter, and procreation)
  • The life values exist on a spectrum from most positive to most negative. (life to a fate worse than death (damnation)
  • Positive life value means the need is met, negative life value means the need is unmet. 
  • There are two types of stories: prescriptive (ends pos, how to get your needs met) & cautionary (ends neg, warning, this will leave your needs unmet)

2. We also know that the fact that stories are about Change indicates there is a before and an after, that’s what change is. In other words a beginning, middle, and end. 

Now this change is not merely one moment. Because let’s face it, humans are not often eager to change. We avoid it for as long as possible. Instead it happens over time, bit by bit. Stories, like music, occur in time, as opposed to a photograph or a painting that can be experienced all at once. Stories and music must be doled out “a note at a time”. It is this timeline experience that we are seeking to craft when we write a story. 

So how do you show a change over time?

  • You begin with an Opening life value
  • And you’ll end with a Closing life value
  • And between you’ll have what I’m calling “The Path of Most Resistance”. Because while we are not eager to change, the conflict we face will require it.  

Also, this path isn’t random, it’s relatable. It’s what we as humans do, or at least what we perceive we do. It’s an observable pattern. Archetypes aren’t just for characters. They are the structure and the journey of change. Some well known archetypes of change journeys include: 

  • Hero’s journey
  • Heroine’s journey
  • Virgin’s promise
  • Kubler-Ross

So to tell a story that works–one that is satisfying to your audience–you must create a recognizable pattern of changing life values. 

This is where Conventions and Obligatory Scenes come in … 

Conventions establish life values. They show us the way things ARE. They include things like: 

  • Characters
  • Settings
  • Means turning the plot … elements/situations that allow for conflict to take place. Think of it like a perfect storm. 

Introducing these items into a story points to the life values at stake, which in turn sets up the expectations of the reader. Our spidey senses are triggered and we are anticipating certain things to happen. This is mostly subconscious, but it’s definitely happening. Whether you know it or not, pattern recognition is a superpower that all humans have. 

So conventions establish life values … 

Next, Obligatory Scenes come in and turn the life values. They create a change. These include things like:

  • Events
  • Revelations
  • Decisions

The word “Scene” might be a bit misleading, perhaps Obligatory Moment is more accurate. The are specific moments of change. Whatever you call them, they are changes that pay off the audience expectations set up by the conventions. 

Now this payoff may or may not be exactly what the audience expected, but it still meets their expectations because it’s “surprising yet inevitable” — it fits the pattern — so it’s still satisfying.

So …

  • Conventions establish life values, Obligatory scenes turn life values
  • Conventions are set ups, Obligatory scenes are payoffs

One way that has been helpful to me is to think that …. 

  • Conventions are like Nouns, Obligatory scenes are like Verbs

Together, Conventions and Obligatory Scenes demonstrate the change over time. 

So to recap: 

  • Stories are about how to get our Human Needs met, in the face of conflict that requires change
  • We use life values to represent our human needs. 
  • And then we use Conventions and Obligatory Scenes to represent the changing life values.

Conventions and Obligatory Scenes help us shift from abstract to concrete. 

Because storytelling really boils down to a lot of decision making about delivering information: what, when, and how. 

Writer’s block is really just indecision. 

What I love about Conventions and Obligatory Scenes is that they help me make specific decisions because they give me a reason to choose one thing over something else.

Let’s look at an example … a Story through the eyes of a party planner.


You’ve been given the task to plan a surprise party for a friend–make that “a surprising yet inevitable” party for a friend. Before you can begin you have to ask two questions: Who is the friend? And what is the occasion? In other words, you have to ask WHAT IS THE GENRE? Genre is shorthand for the kind of experience do you want to create? 

  • A book launch party for Anne is a very different experience than 
  • a birthday party for my 6-year-old daughter Rosemary. 
  • Anne won’t appreciate the Frozen impersonator I hired, 
  • and let’s just say I’ll be baking two very different kinds of brownies.

Choosing the experience you want to create means deciding:

  • what human need are you addressing
  • what life values are at stake
  • How will you satisfy the need? Through a prescriptive or cautionary tale? Does the story end positive or negative?

Once you “know what kind of experience we are trying to create”, all that’s left is to create it. This is where Conventions and Obligatory Scenes come in.

  • Just like every party needs 1) guests, 2) a venue / atmosphere, 3) fun activities so it’s just a bunch of people standing around staring at one another, 
  • A story must have 1) characters, 2) setting, and 3) unique method of moving the story forward so it’s not just a bunch of people standing around staring at one another. 

These are conventions

And depending on the specific kind of experience (genre) you are trying to create, will dictate what these three elements are … in our Anne vs Rosemary party example means fery different guests, venue / atmosphere, and activities. 

But we can’t stop there. That’s a set up, it’s not a story. 

To create a story, we don’t just let those conventions stay put, we have to throw some balls of chaos in the mix and make them move around and shift. We need some events, revelations, and decisions … 

At Anne’s book launch party,

  • Maybe an estranged friend shows up … 
  • Maybe a film producer shows up and commissions her to write a screenplay version of her book … 
  • Maybe a snow storm knocks out the power … 
  • Maybe an estranged friend who is now a movie producer shows up, and asks Anne to write a screenplay. Anne’s not interested, but then a show storm knocks out the power … 

At Rosemary’s birthday party, 

  • Maybe the Frozen impersonator is an estranged friend
  • Maybe someone gets knocked out while breaking open the Olaf pinata
  • Maybe maybe a snow storm makes the lights go out
  • Maybe while the lights go out, someone knocks out the Frozen impersonator … dun dun dun! 

Or maybe I helped plan both parties but accidentally mixed up the brownies … 

It all depends on the kind of story I’m trying to tell … it all depends on the GENRE. 

However the story plays out, the Obligatory Scenes are the key events, revelations, and decisions move the story forward by changing the life values set up by the conventions. 

I hope that this brief overview has helped you see Conventions and Obligatory Scenes in a new way, and understand that they are not a list to be checked off like items to be merely included. Rather Conventions and Obligatory Scenes are entwined with the spine. Together they generate a cause and effect of setups and payoffs that builds the pattern of change of change that is meaningful to the reader, from hook to build to surprising yet inevitable payoff.

You can find the list of Conventions and Obligatory Scenes for each content genre in the show notes of the first two seasons of the Roundtable, as well as the “secrets of” genre blog series by Rachelle Ramirez. 

I encourage you to deepen your understanding of Conventions and Obligatory Scenes deeper for your chosen genre through the three pillars:

  • The list
  • Story theory
  • Masterwork

Also, keep an eye out for the Story Grid Beat Conventions & Obligatory Scenes: The Must-Haves to Meet Audience Expectations coming out in 2020.

Join us for our season six trailer next week. Full episodes return on December 18, when Leslie will discuss point of view and narrative device in the context of It’s a Wonderful Life. Why not give it a look and follow along with us?

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About Kimberly Kessler

Kim is obsessed with the internal genres and specializes in helping writers craft authentic character arcs in any setting. Her favorite clients are hungry to learn and bring their full authentic selves to the collaborative process. Nothing is more rewarding than digging in together to uncover the breakthroughs they need. As a novelist and filmmaker, she intersects trauma and grief with humor and love, believing somewhere in the dark is a redemptive perspective on the pain. Bring. On. All. The. Feels. She lives in Washington state with her stand-up comedian husband and three "think they're a comedian" kids. Connect with her at www.kimberkessler.com
Story Grid 101: The Five First Principles of the Story Grid Methodology
by Shawn Coyne
What are the first principles in writing a story that works? At Story Grid, it’s easy to get distracted by the tools, spreadsheets, commandments, macro lense, micro lense, and on and on. However, all of this eventually comes back to five first principles. In Story Grid 101, Story Grid founder Shawn Coyne distills 30 years... Read more »
Paperback: $19.99
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Authors Kimberly Kessler


lewspeare says:

Hey Kimberly. I enjoyed the entire article, but I cut and pasted “Conventions establish life values
•Obligatory scenes turn the life values” into my permanent notes on this. I had never thought of it like that before! Not sure if that was a Shawn-Saying or something you just came up with–either way brilliant!

I had been kind of thinking over the C&Os and pondering if maybe they go even deeper–maybe coming from society and environment and internal conflicts that are universal in one sense (like love story conventions) and yet are exemplified in a particular context or time period in history…which would make them show up in a different form in each era (i.e. a side-kick in Star Wars is CP3O while in a 1820 novel that archetype might be a coworker in the mill, etc.). Anyway, your post was great. And I really like the bullet points. makes for every easy reading.

Peter Tittes says:

I’m going to steal your phrase, “the path of most resistance.” It is the essence of what most of the beginning writers I know, are leaving out of their writings. I won’t describe those writings as stories, because without the resistance, I don’t believe there’s a story.

Drew Emery (@InlawsOutlaws) says:

Kimberly, I loved this Bite Size lesson. It’s an area I thought I already understood well enough but you managed to give it greater depth and resonance while, at the same time, breaking the particulars into practical applications that simplified my understanding of it all. Brava.

I’m taken by what you say about our innate ability as humans to recognize patterns. It makes me ponder the fact that, because we use patterns to try to make sense of things, perhaps we gravitate towards arrangements that already contain those patterns, an explanation for why there are finite genres, and that each genre has discreet obligatory scenes and conventions. Our pattern seeking minds prefer them.

When you consider how diverse and complex life can be, in theory there could be an infinite number of genres, but instead, we find the stories in the chaos of life by picking out the patterns and illuminating just those facts in a manner that gives them meaning. One could say then that writing a story that works is merely reverse engineering the process we go through in life. Instead, we writers are embedding the pattern in our chosen sequence of events and doing so in a way that gives the reader the pleasure of discovery and the sensation of experience.

Maybe all that, or maybe I’m just a bit too caffeinated. Regardless, thanks again for pulling this area of the grid into sharper focus.

Kevin says:

“You can find the list of Conventions and Obligatory Scenes for each content genre in the show notes of the first two seasons of the Roundtable”

Well, I’ve looked, and I haven’t found that. But then, the website isn’t organized so that I can identify what are the “first two seasons of the Roundtable”, or easily search for content.


Leslie Watts says:

It can be tricky to locate specific information on a site with so much valuable information.

Here is a link to the foolscaps for our first season (click the tabs along the bottom to navigate) : https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1x1Ay8PxKVuexoP8z81aCa-hwgmYLvlX64QBYr6LyYUo/edit?usp=sharing

We changed the format for season 2. You can find the foolscaps within the individual show notes: Season 2 begins with Hidden Figures and ends with Flight. Once you get to one of the season 2 episode show notes, you can navigate forward and back to find the genre you’re looking for.

Also, be sure to check out the “Secrets of the Genre” Fundamental Friday posts from fellow Story Grid Certified Editor Rachelle Ramirez.

Here’s a pro search tip from fellow Story Grid Certified Editor Shelley Sperry: Add a period before the web address then your topic in the search bar (e.g., .storygrid.com Society genre), and your results will include all the pages on the site that include your topic.

Drew Emery (@InlawsOutlaws) says:

Thanks so much, Leslie! I second Kevin’s comment on organization. So much good material here but it’s not obvious to most.

Rachelle Ramirez says:

Thank you so much for sharing your insights with us. Your work is appreciated.


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